Zhoukoudian of Peking Man Site
Category: Cultural Relics Sites
Address : Zhoukoudian, Fangshan County, Beijing
Open Time : Daily 9:00am - 5:00pm
Phone : 86-10-69301272
Entrance fee: RMB 30/p.p
Introduction of Peking Man Site Beijing
Zhoukoudian, also named the "Peking Man Site", is located about 50 kilometers southwest of Beijing, was a natural habitat of human ancestors about 700,000 years ago. Here multiplied descendents, from age to age, created the splendid Paleolithic Age. To some extent, this is the cradle of Chinese civilization. In this charming and mystical land, Peking man left its footprints. Today, the remains and site provides a good opportunity for tourists to explore the primitive life of our human ancestors.
The Peking Man Site is situated in the Dragon Bone Hill near Zhoukoudian. Since 1921, eight sites of ancient human remains have been discovered. 26 localities where high concentrations of fossils were found have been excavated. 118 kinds of animal fossils and over 100,000 stone wares have been unearthed. These fossils and remains serve as evidence of the existence of humanoid species 500,000 years ago in Zhoukoudian.
Three representative remains exist: the Peking Man Site, the Upper Cave Man Site and the New Cave Man Site. In 1921, a cave was discovered at Zhoukoudian. Archaeologists confirmed it as the habitat of Peking Man. Today, it is called Locality One or Apeman Cave.
In 1929, the discovery of a complete skullcap fossil by a Chinese Paleontologist, Pei Wenzhong, caused excitement around the world. The skullcap fossil could be traced back 500,000-700,000 years ago, proving the existence of Sinanthropus .This discovery serves as reliable and convincing evidence for the theory of evolution. Since then, Zhoukoudian has become known as the 'Home of Apeman'. Decades of scientific work and excavation revealed many skeletal fossils of the ancient Peking Man, stone and bone implements and ash residues.
The Upper Cave Man Site was discovered in 1930, and was excavated in 1933. It is located above the Apeman Cave near the peak of the Dragon Bone Hill. The cave is about 4 meters high and 5 meters wide. Three complete skullcap fossils and many other fossils were discovered here. Around the skeletons the powder of red hematite was also discovered. Other finds include bone needles, animal teeth and the remains of necklaces that were used as ornaments. These remains prove the utilization of animal furs to make clothes and to dress themselves.
According to scientific research, the Upper Cave Man lived about 18,000 years ago with their physical character being quite similar to that of modern man.
In 1973, the New Cave Man Site was found in Locality Four, 100 meters (328 feet) south to the Apeman Cave. The New Cave Man lived 100,000 years ago. The discovery of this site bridges the gap between Peking Man and Upper Cave Man, and the succession of Peking Man's evolution. One tooth, fossils of amniotes and other animal fossils were unearthed here.
In September 2005, over 100 animal fossils were discovered in Gezitang hall. Gezitang hall is located at the entrance of Apeman Cave. Archeologists have confirmed that the fossils discovered are the remains of several species of ancient deer that lived in the middle Pleistocene period. Three teeth fossils, several antler and upper jawbones of the ancient deer were found.
These cultural relics are very valuable in the study of the origin and evolution of the human species. In 1953, the Peking Man Site Museum was founded and opened to the public, exhibiting over 3,000 cultural relics. The exhibits are mainly composed of fossils of the Peking Man and other animal bones, demonstrating the origin of creatures in prehistory and the transition from ape to human.
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